Amniotic Fluid for Treatment

Amniotic Fluid for Treatment

The amniotic fluid, a fluid found in the amniotic sac, surrounds the developing human embryo. It was anciently thought to be just fetal urine.[1][2] Then, for more than 50 years, human amniotic fluid cells were used only as a diagnostic tool for the prenatal diagnosis of fetal genetic anomalies. However, today, amniotic fluid has been identified as an untapped source of cells with broad potential.[3][4] It possess immunomodulatory properties and does not have the ethical and legal limitations of embryonic stem. The use of amniotic fluid in regenerative medicine is considerably modern.[5] Amniotic fluid contains various growth factors, cytokines, hormones, nutrients like lipids and proteins, water, electrolytes, and pluripotent cells that are needed for regenerative medicine against both congenital and acquired disorders. Regenerative purposes in medicine include tissue regeneration, transplantation and therapy, which may offer a long-term solution to the problems of shortage of organs available for transplantation as these pluripotent cells are capable of differentiating into different lines of cells, like osteocytes, adipocytes and fibroblasts.

The collection of amniotic fluid in full-term cesarean deliveries adds on average 90 seconds to the operation, and is safe for both mother and child. Moreover, there is nothing unethical in collection of amniotic fluid as it is not harmful to the baby. The amniotic stem cells are non-teratogenic. Due to the pluripotent properties of cells in amniotic fluid and their ability to engraft in injured organs and modulate immune and repair responses of host tissues, suggest that transplantation of such cells may be useful for the treatment of various degenerative and inflammatory diseases. Hence, they are ideal for use in:
⦁ Orthopedics
⦁ Treating cardiovascular diseases [6]
⦁ Treatment of Diabetes
⦁ Treating Arthritis
⦁ Treating Neurodegenerative disorders
⦁ Treating pain
⦁ Aesthetic purposes
⦁ Treating Soft Tissue Injury
⦁ Relief of Muscle Pain
⦁ Hair Regeneration
⦁ Wound Healing
⦁ Surgery Healing
⦁ Treatment of Plantar Fasciitis

High levels of cytokines can be exploited for controlling immune responses in arthritis. Amniotic fluid (AF) also contains various kinds of growth factors and can be an excellent source of initiating and supporting wound healing. If given during a surgery, amniotic fluid can support early healing of patient.
Amniotic fluid also contains many pluripotent cells that can differentiate into any cell line and this is extremely useful for treating cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.[7]
Use of amniotic fluid during an organ transplantation can be beneficial, just as it would also be for hair regeneration and other aesthetic purposes.

References:
[1] Underwood, MA, Gilbert, WM, Sherman, MP. Amniotic fluid: Not just fetal urine anymore. J Perinatol 2005; 25: 341– 348.
[2] Parolini, O, Soncini, M, Evangelista, M, Schmidt, D. Amniotic membrane and amniotic fluid-derived cells: potential tools for regenerative medicine? Regen Med 2009 Mar; 4(2): 275–91.
[3] Loukogeorgakis, SP, Coppi De, P. Stem cells from amniotic fluid – Potential for regenerative medicine. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2015; 44: 1– 13.
[4] Loukogeorgakis, SP, Maghsoudlou, P,Coppi, P. Recent developments in therapies with stem cells from amniotic fluid and placenta. Fetal Maternal Med Rev2013; 24: 148– 168.
[5] Cananzi, M, Atala, A, De Coppi, P. Stem cells derived from amniotic fluid: new potentials in regenerative medicine. Reprod Biomed Online2009 18(Suppl 1): 17–27.
[6] Bollini, S, Cheung, KK, Riegler, J, Dong, X, Smart, N, Ghionzoli, M, et al. Amniotic fluid stem cells are cardioprotective following acute myocardial infarction. Stem Cells Dev 2011 Nov; 20(11): 1985–94.
[7] Angelini, A, Castellani, C, Ravara, B, Franzin, C, Pozzobon, M, Tavano, R, et al.Stem-cell therapy in an experimental model of pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure: role of paracrine and neurohormonal milieu in the remodeling process. J Heart Lung Transplant2011 Nov; 30(11): 1281–93